THE EIGHTEENTH CENTURY 319 if, like Pestalozzi, he had been an " intelligent expert" in educa- tional work. It must not be inferred from this, however, that Pestalozzi set out with certain borrowed ideas, and worked out an educational system to correspond. Kant might have done that, but Pestalozzi's genius was essentially practical. More than with most educators, his educational theory grew out of his educational practice, and even at the best it was never more than a very imperfect expression of what underlay the practice. To under- stand Pestalozzi, therefore, we must begin with the man and his work. Pestalozzi was born at Zurich in Switzerland in 1746. His father, who was a surgeon, died when he was five years old, and he owed his upbringing to his mother and a devoted maidservant. This fact had a decisive influence on his character and on his view of life. In particular, it led him to a higher appreciation of the part played by the mother and the life of the home in the early education of children than had ever been held by any previous educator. The next great influence came to him at the university of his native town, where he studied till the age of nineteen. In the momentous years of adolescence, when under teachers of revolutionary temper, he read Rousseau's works with avidity. The Emile, but recently published, made a great impression on him. " My own visionary tendencies," he said in his Swan Song, " were stimulated to a pitch of extraordinary enthusiasm when I read that dream book of his. I compared the education which I had received at home and at school with that which Rousseau demanded for Emile, and I felt how wretchedly inadequate it all had been."* The immediate effect of his reading of Rousseau was to unsettle all his plans. He had intended^Jp. ente£j:he mimsiryv but he failed in his first sermon, and gave up the idea altogether. Then he turned his attention to the law, but he soon saw that his political opinions would bar all prospectTof advance- ment, and he abandoned that course also. Then as a direct result of Rousseau's teaching he bgcag^AJarmer. As it turned out, he was ill-fitted for fanning, but by a happy chance his failure led him to his proper life-woiL. He had already made a beginning with education in the upbringing of his son Jacques, (so named after Jean Jacques), and, quite in the spirit of the master, he had kept sT record of Bis observations and experiments. It was the * Werk* (Seyfiarth), xiv, aoo.